South India Journal of Social Sciences is now an official member of Crossref JGate sgd
Beyond the Himalayan Borderlands: Indian Textile Production and Trade with Central Asia during Mughals
Vol 22 No. 1


Cotton Textiles

How to Cite

RATHER, Z. (2024). Beyond the Himalayan Borderlands: Indian Textile Production and Trade with Central Asia during Mughals. SOUTH INDIA JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES, 22(1 March), 47-59.


Due to its control over the region having the largest natural and human resources, the Mughal economy emerged as a potential export economy, allowing it to export a wide range of commodities to Southeast Asia, Central Asia, the Middle East, and Europe. Thus, cotton textiles and Indigo occupied a premier position among the most significant exports. Although India’s textile export was significant, it also bought a vast variety of goods, making the Mughal Empire a significant importer as well. Despite exporting vast quantities of textiles, the Mughals also exported bullion to obtain essential imports such as war horses.

The purpose of this study is to provide an overview of Indian cotton textile exports to Central Asia. The study argues that, given the huge quantity of imports received by the Mughal Empire, it is impossible to believe that the trade balance was in favor of India.



Alam, Muzaffar. 1994. Trade, state policy and regional change: aspects of Mughal Uzbek commercial relations, Journal of Economic and Social History of the Orient, 37(3).

Allami, Abul Fazl. 1873. The Ain i Akbari, Vol. I. Blochmann, H. tr, Calcutta: Asiatic Society of Bengal.

Babur, Zahir ud Din Mohammad. 1922. Babur Nama, I, Beveridge A.S. tr, London: Luzac and Co.

Bayly, C.A. 1990. Indigenous social formations and the world system: north India since c.1700, in Bose, Sugata. ed, South Asia and World Capitalism, Delhi: Oxford University Press.

Bernier, Francois. 1891. Travels in Moghul Empire 1656-1668, Constable, Archibald. Westminster: Archibald Constable and Company.

Bhadani, B.L. 1992. Land tax and trade in agricultural produce in seventeenth-century western Rajasthan, Indian Economic and Social History Review, 29(2).

Bhandare, S. Numismatic reflection on Shahjahan’s Balkh campaign, 1646-47, available at, Accessed on 30, March, 2020.

Bhandari, Sujan Rai. 1901. Khulasat ut Tawarikh, Sarkar, Jadunath. tr, Calcutta: Bose Brothers.

Brennig, Joseph J. 1986. Textile producers and production in late seventeenth century Coromandel”, The Indian Economic and Social History Review, 23(4).

Burton, Audrey. 1993. Bukharan Trade 1558-1718, Bloomington: Research Institute for Inner Asian Studies.

Burton, Audrey. 1997. The Bukharans: A Dynastic, Diplomatic and Commercial History, 1550-1702, London: Curzon Press.

Chardin, John. 1927. Travels in Persia 1673-1677, Penzer, N.M. ed, London: The Argonaut Press.

Chaudhuri, K.N. 1974. The structure of Indian textile industry in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, The Indian Economic and Social History Review, 11(2–3).

Chaudhuri, K.N. 1978. The Trading World of Asia and the English East India Company 1660-1760, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Clarke, R.A. 1876 - 1877. A voyage to Uzbegistan in 1671–1672”, Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society of London, 21(3).

Coverte, Robert. 1631. A True and Almost Incredible Report of an Englishman, London: Hugh Perry.

Dale, Stephen F. 1994. Indian Merchants and Eurasian Trade 1600-1750, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Deloche, Jean. 1993. Transport and Communications in India Prior to Steam Locomotion, I, Walker, James. tr, New Delhi: Oxford University Press.

Ferrier, R.W. 1976. An English view of Persian trade in 1618: reports from the merchants Edward Pettus and Thomas Barker, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 19(2).

Foster, William. 1906. The English Factories in India, 1618-21, Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Foster, William. 1912. The English Factories in India 1637–1641, Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.